The battery only stores electricity. If we use too much, all the electricity will be gone. So something must put electricity back into the battery. This is done by the dynamo. The dynamo is a small machine that makes electricity. It is turned by the crankshaft through the belt. (This belt also turns the cooling fan.)

The electricity from the dynamo flows into the battery. This keeps the battery full of electricity (recharged). A small instrument (the voltage regulator) stops too much electricity from flowing into the battery (overcharging). So the dynamo recharges the battery when the engine is running.

1. Work with your partner to describe position of car components. Use the following phrases:

On the right / left-hand side, at the front / rear (of the engine, of the battery, …), on the opposite side, above / below / next to / beside / between, ……….

For example: The brake fluid reservoir is the rectangular container on the right.

2. Match English word combinations with their equivalents in Ukrainian:

1. drum brakes a. гальмівна рідина
2. disc brakes b. головний циліндр
3. friction lining c. фрикційна гальмівна накладка
4. braking action d. гальмівна колодка
5. brake fluid e. рідина для заповнення гідравлічної системи
6. hydraulic brake f. гальмування
7. master cylinder g. фрикційна накладка
8. brake shoe h. гальмо з гідравлічним приводом
9. brake lining i. дискове гальмо
10.hydraulic fluid 11.leaf spring 12.coil spring 13.shock absorber 14. antilock braking system j. барабанне гальмо k. АБС l. амортизатор m. спіральна пружина n. листова ресора

3. Match English word combinations with their equivalents in Ukrainian:

1. petrol engine a) електрод
2. four-cylinder engine b) чотирьохциліндровий двигун
3. fuel/air mixture c) камера згорання
4. electrode d) система запалювання
5. ignition system e) повітряно-паливна суміш
6. ignition process f) свічка запалювання
7. combustion chamber g) процес запалювання
8. sparking plug h) бензиновий двигун
9. tail pipe extension i) запасні частини
10. spare parts j) глушник

4. Match the word with its definition:

1. cylinder a) helps to carry sb/sth in a vehicle
2. gearbox b) the hollow part inside which the piston moves in the engine
3. wheel c) a device for slowing or stopping a car, bicycle, train, ……
4. steering wheel d) the wheel that the driver turns in order to steer a vehicle
5. clutch e) the metal case that encloses a vehicle’s gear mechanism
6. brakes f) an automatic signal that controls road traffic
7. reverse gear g) a folding cover over a car
8. traffic lights h) a device that connects and disconnects working parts in a machine (the engine and gears in a vehicle)
9. carburetor i) an apparatus that mixes petrol and air together to make the explosive gas which provides power
10. hood j) the mechanism used to make a vehicle travel backwards

5. Match English words and combinations with their equivalents in Ukrainian:

1. headlight a) трансмісія
2. transmission system 3. contemporary 4. wheelbase b) основний агрегат (вузол) c) колісна база d) сучасний
5. steering mechanism e) передня фара
6. major unit 7. road surface 8. off-road abilities f) рульовий механізм g) покриття дороги h) поза шляхові можливості
9. windscreen i) вітрове скло
10. handbrake j) ручне гальмо

6. Translate this extract in written form:

As automobiles changed through the years, mechanics or automobile service technicians, as they are now called, have kept them running. The “Big Three” (Ford, GM and Chrysler) automobile makers produced millions of cars for a public eager for freedom and mobility the automobile promised. With the ill-prepared roads suddenly overrun by inexperienced drivers, accidents and breakdowns became common. People were not only unskilled in driving but also were ignorant of the basic maintenance and service the automobile required. It suddenly became apparent that a new profession was in the making.

Automobile service technicians maintain and repair cars, vans, small trucks and other vehicles. Using both hand tools and specialized diagnostic test equipment, they pinpoint problems and make the necessary repairs or adjustments. In addition to performing complex and difficult repairs, they perform a number of routine maintenance procedures, such as oil changes, tire rotation and battery replacement. Technicians interact frequently with customers to explain repair procedures and discuss maintenance needs.